Top Key Gut Health Terminology 

Whether or not you might be studying about intestine well being as a part of a structured course or are studying extra about intestine well being by yourself, it could actually take time to search for key terminology.  

Right here, we’ve pulled collectively an important terminology associated to intestine well being in an easy-to-read glossary. All through the weblog under, you will discover hyperlinks the place you’ll be able to be taught extra concerning the matter, and on the finish, you will discover a complete listing of analysis articles to discover.  

Pleased studying!  

Intestine Well being (Biomedical Perspective) 

Gut health is outlined by an absence of a set of biomarkers, particularly gastrointestinal signs (e.g., belly ache, diarrhea), illness (e.g., inflammatory bowel illness, colon most cancers), elevated intestinal permeability, mucosal irritation, and the deficiency (and even extra) of short-chain fatty acids.  

Intestine Well being (Wellness Perspective) 

Intestine well being is the energetic course of by means of which individuals develop into conscious of a extra profitable existence that advantages the intestine and all well being components related to it. 


Wellness is an energetic course of by means of which individuals develop into conscious of, and make selections towards, a extra profitable existence. 

Gastrointestinal Illnesses 

Gastrointestinal ailments have an effect on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the mouth to the anus. Some examples embrace nausea, heartburn (GERD), lactose intolerance, diarrhea, gallstones, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and Chron’s illness. Many gastrointestinal ailments have a element associated to the intestine microbiome.  

Practical Diet 

Functional nutrition is the follow of contemplating each facet of well being, eating regimen, and general life-style when giving vitamin suggestions. It aligns with the ideologies of purposeful drugs. Intestine well being and wellness are a cornerstone of purposeful vitamin.  


The microbiota includes all dwelling members forming the microbiome. A lot of the microbiota are micro organism, however additionally they embrace fungi, helminths, and viruses.  


The microbiome is a neighborhood of micro organism, fungi, and viruses that stay in and on the human physique. The gut microbiome refers back to the neighborhood of microbiota or microbes that stay within the intestine.  


The best way through which organisms stay collectively for his or her mutual, and due to this fact, intrinsic profit. In reference to the human physique, symbiosis is a helpful relationship between the host (the human physique) and the microbes that inhabit in and on it. The intestine microbiome is described as a “symbiotic relationship” between microbes and people. There’s symbiosis when there’s a inhabitants of intestine microbes that help well being.    


Dysbiosis may be outlined as a discount in microbial variety and a mix of the lack of helpful microbes within the microbiome, both in quantity or sort. It’s known as dysbacteriosis when it refers particularly to bacterial populations.  


Biofilms are aggregates of micro organism, fungi, and different microorganisms that stay in communities. Biofilms are made up of starchy matrices that shield the microorganisms from the atmosphere. Relying on whether or not they home pathogens or commensals and probiotics, they are often helpful or dangerous.    

Digestive System 

The organs that soak up meals and liquids and break them down into substances that the physique can use for power, development, and tissue restore.  


The advanced means of turning the meals you eat into vitamins, which the physique makes use of for power, development, and cell restore wanted to outlive. The digestion course of additionally includes creating waste to be eradicated.  


Additionally known as the cephalic section, or just “consuming,” ingestion refers back to the entry of meals into the gastrointestinal tract. 

Epithelial Cells  

Epithelial cells are these lining the lumen of the abdomen and small gut.   


Pathogens are microbes that make us sick by means of an infection.  


Pathobionts are members of the microbiota that exert particular results on the host’s mucosal immune system related to the event of scientific illness. They’re low-virulence microbes.  

Commensals (Commensal Microbes) 

Commensals refer collectively to the traditional micro organism within the intestine. They improve the digestion of macronutrients and synthesize short-chain fatty acids and nutritional vitamins. 


Additionally known as probionts, probiotics are symbiotic micro organism that present a profit to the host by making nutritional vitamins and regulating immune perform. Probiotics confer well being advantages by the identical mechanisms as your commensal micro organism. 


Prebiotics are meals substrates that nourish and stimulate the expansion of microbes that help human well being whereas additionally lowering disease-causing micro organism. Prebiotic-rich meals feed the microbes, which in flip create a number of substrates, together with short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). 


Dietary supplements through which prebiotics and probiotics are discovered collectively.  


Psychobiotics are helpful micro organism (probiotics) or help for such micro organism (prebiotics) that affect bacteria–brain relationships and have an effect on psychological well being. 


Postbiotics are bioactive compounds made when the intestine microbiota digest and break down prebiotics. They’re additionally known as microbial metabolites.  

Quick-Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA)* 

*As they relate to intestine well being 

SCFAs present gasoline sources to the colon. 


Prescription drugs that get rid of pathogenic micro organism to deal with infections. Typically, antibiotics should not particular to pathogenic micro organism, to allow them to additionally get rid of commensal bacterial, altering the steadiness of intestinal microbes.    

Enteric Nervous System (ENS) 

The ENS, additionally known as the intrinsic nervous system, is without doubt one of the major divisions of the gastrointestinal tract. The truth is, the enteric nervous system (ENS) is also known as the “second mind” as a result of it’s able to performing independently of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous methods, though it might be influenced by them. 

Vagus Nerve 

The vagus nerve is the principle nerve of your parasympathetic nervous system. This technique controls particular physique features reminiscent of digestion, coronary heart charge, and immune system. These features are involuntary, that means you’ll be able to’t consciously management them. 

Intestine-Mind Axis (GBA) 

The GBA is the pathway for bi-directional communication between the intestine, through the enteric nervous system, and the mind, through the central nervous system.   

Microbiome-Intestine-Mind-Axis (MGB Axis) 

The function of the microbiome in modulating gut-brain signaling has develop into extra obvious lately, giving rise to the idea of a microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGB axis).  The MGB axis is the pathway for bi-directional communication between the microbiome, the intestine, and the central nervous system.  

Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis (HPA Axis) 

The hypothalamus-pituitary axis (HPA axis) is without doubt one of the most essential parts of the MGB axis. It supplies a major organic response to anxious stimuli. The intestine microbiota performs an essential function in shaping mind features and habits, together with the exercise of the HPA axis. 

Elevated Intestinal Permeability 

The intestines are semi-permeable. The mucosal layer absorbs water and vitamins from the meals, in addition to metabolites and different chemical substances from intestine microbiota. Nevertheless, some individuals have an impaired mucosal barrier perform on account of irritation or an infection, initiating elements that result in elevated permeability. With continual irritation, there are persistent adjustments within the mucosal barrier perform, and it opens the door to the event of ailments that have an effect on the GI tract and the complete physique.  Typically, it’s known as “leaky gut syndrome.”  

Bacterial Translocation 

Bacterial translocation is outlined because the passage of viable micro organism from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to extraintestinal websites 

Irritation and Power Irritation 

Irritation is the immune system’s pure response to an irritant. If the immune system is profitable at defending and therapeutic the world, irritation will go down, and the world will now not harm. Nevertheless, in some instances, irritation is just not useful to the physique. Some circumstances, known as autoimmune diseases or chronic inflammatory diseases, assault the physique’s cells by mistake. This causes irritation that’s dangerous to the physique. 


Cytokines are small proteins which are essential in controlling the expansion and exercise of different immune system cells and blood cells. Inflammatory cytokines, or pro-inflammatory cytokines, are markers of irritation.  


Antinutrients are parts present in meals that have an effect on the physique’s capacity to soak up vitamins or convert these vitamins into substances the physique can use. They’re naturally present in plant meals, particularly grains, pulses, and legumes, but additionally leafy greens. 

Therapeutic Food regimen 

A therapeutic eating regimen is a meal plan that controls the consumption of sure meals or vitamins. It’s a part of the therapy of a medical or dietary situation.


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